Fred W. Pohlman

Fred W. Pohlman Professor

University of Arkansas
AFLS B-103D
Fayetteville AR  72701

Phone:(479) 575-5634
Fax: (479) 575-7294
fpohlma@uark.edu

Education

  • Ph.D. - Kansas State University
  • M.S. - University of Tennessee, Knoxville
  • B.S. - University of Missouri, Columbia

Courses Taught

  • ANSC 2781 Career Preparation and Development
  • ANSC 3613 Meat Science

 

 

Research Emphasis

  • Meat processing and handling techniques, food safety, animal finishing, lean meat quality and yield, and meat palatability.

Honors and Awards

Past-Chairman - IFT Muscle Foods Division 

Achievement Award - American Meat Science Association, 2003.

Publications -

National Invited Presentations and Proceedings:

  • Dias-Morse, P. N., F. W. Pohlman, J. A. McDaniel, R. D. Guidry, C. L. Coffman, and T. L. Devine. 2012. Evaluation of instrumental color characteristics of ground beef processed from beef trimmings decontaminated using lauric arginate accompanied by other antimicrobials. Proceedings of the 65th Annual Reciprocal Meat Conference, Fargo, ND. June 2012.

  • Dias-Morse, P. N., F. W. Pohlman, J. A. McDaniel, R. D. Guidry, C. L. Coffman, T. L. Devine and K. L. Beers. 2012. Multi-hurdle chemical decontamination approach using lauric arginate to enhance ground beef microbial properties. IFT Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, June 2012. June 2012.

  • Kushwaha, K., F. W. Pohlman, S. Ricke, P. N. Dias-Morse, D. Babu.  2012. Effect of octanoic acid treatments applied using conventional and electrostatic spray methods on microbial and color characteristics of ground beef.  IFT Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, June 2012.

  • Dias-Morse, P. N., F. W. Pohlman, J. A. McDaniel, L. N. Mehall, A. Mohan, R. D. Guidry, T. L. Devine, and K. L. Beers. 2011. Impact of hydrochloric/citric acid blend as a pre-grinding intervention on ground beef instrumental color characteristics. 2011. Proceedings of the 64th Annual Reciprocal Meat Conference, Book of Abstracts, June 2011. Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS.

  • McDaniel1, J. A., F. W. Pohlman, A. H. Brown, Jr., Steven C. Ricke, S. R. Milillo, P. N. Dias-Morse, L. N. Mehall, Anand Mohan, T. Rojas, K. L. Beers. 2011. Effect of electrostatic spray application of cetylpyridinium chloride, hydrochloric/citric acid mixture, potassium lactate, trisodium phosphate, or water on Longissimus lumborum sub-primal and steak levels on product microbial and instrumental color properties. 2011. IFT Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA., June 2011. (Poster)

  • McDaniel1, J. A., F. W. Pohlman, A. H. Brown, Steven C. Ricke, S. R. Milillo, P. N. Dias-Morse, L. N. Mehall, A. Mohan, T. Rojas, K. L. Beers. 2011. The enhancement of beef product safety through electrostatic spray application of cetylpridinium chloride, hydrochloric/citric acid mixture, potassium lactate, trisodium phosphate, or water as antimicrobial interventions on Longissimus lumborum at the sub-primal level. 2011. IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts, New Orleans, LA., June 2011.

  • McDaniel1, J. A., F. W. Pohlman, A. H. Brown, Steven C. Ricke, S. R. Milillo, P. N. Dias-Morse, L. N. Mehall, A. Mohan, T. Rojas, K. L. Beers. 2011. The enhancement of beef product safety through electrostatic spray application of cetylpyridinium chloride, hydrochloric/citric acid mixture, potassium lactate, trisodium phosphate, or water as multiple application antimicrobial interventions on Longissimus lumborum at the sub-primal and steak levels. 2011. IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts, New Orleans, LA., June 2011.

  • McDaniel1, J. A., F. W. Pohlman, A. H.  Brown, Jr., Steven C. Ricke, S. R. Milillo, P. N. Dias-Morse, L. N. Mehall, Anand Mohan, T. Rojas, K. L. Beers. 2011. Evaluation of product safety enhancement through antimicrobial electrostatic spray applications on Longissimus lumborum at the sub-primal level and its impact on meat color characteristics. 2011. IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts, New Orleans, LA. June 2011. (Poster)

  • McKenzie, L.M., F.W. Pohlman, A.H. Brown, Z.B. Johnson, P. Dias-Morse, T.N. Rojas. 2010.  Effects of strip loin beef steaks dipped into potassium lactate and trisodium phosphate incorporated into gelatin coating systems for cook loss, sheer force, and sensory taste characteristics. IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts 2010, Anaheim, CA (Submitted).
  • Mehall, L.N., F.W. Pohlman, A.H. Brown, Jr., P.N. Dias-Morse, L.M. McKenzie. 2009. The effects of cetylpyridinium chloride, trisodium phosphate, potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, or water as antimicrobial interventions on microbiological characteristics of biceps femoris.  IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts 2010, Anaheim, CA (Submitted).
  • Mehall, L.N., F.W. Pohlman, A.H. Brown, Jr., P.N. Dias-Morse, L.M. McKenzie. 2009. The impact of cetylpyridinium chloride, trisodium phosphate, potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, or water as antimicrobial interventions on instrumental color characteristics of biceps femoris.  IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts 2010, Anaheim, CA (Submitted).
  • Rojas, T., A.H. Brown, Jr., F.W. Pohlman, Z. Johnson, L. Mehall and L. McKenzie. 2010. Effects of breed and diet on beef quality characteristics.  J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 88 (Suppl. 1): (In press).
  • Pohlman, F.W., A.H. Brown, P.N. Dias-Morse, L.M. McKenzie, L.N. Mehall and T.N. Rojas.  2009.  Evaluation of instrumental color properties of beef steaks coated with trisodium phosphate incorporated gelatin coating system prior to packaging.  Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Reciprocal Meat Conference, June 2009.  University of Arkansas, pg 49-50.
  • Pohlman, F.W., A.H. Brown, P.N. Dias-Morse, L.M. McKenzie, L.N. Mehall and T.N. Rojas. 2009.  Effect of  trisodium phosphate incorporated gelatin coating system as a single antimicrobial intervention on microbial  properties of beef steaks.  Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Reciprocal Meat Conference, June 2009.  University of Arkansas, pg 57.
  • Pohlman, F.W., P.N. Dias-Morse, L.M. McKenzie, T.N. Rojas and L.N. Mehall. 2009. Effect of potassium  lactate incorporated gelatin coating as an antimicrobial intervention on Escherichia coli and Salmonella  populations in inoculated beef  steaks.  IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts 2009, Abstract No. 123-25, p. 152, Anaheim, CA.
  • Pohlman, F. W., L. M. McKenzie, P. N. Dias, T. N. Rojas and L. N. Mehall. 2009. Instrumental color characteristics and Physical Characteristics for Potassium Lactate Incorporated into Gelatin Coating as a Microbial Intervention Escherichia coli and Salmonella cocktail on Inoculated Beef Steaks. IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts 2009, Anaheim, CA.
  • McKenzie, L., F. Pohlman, P. Dias, T. Rojas, L. Mehall, J. Caldwell. 2009. Instrumental color characteristics for  potassium lactate incorporated into gelatin coating when used as microbial interventions for Escherichia coli  and Salmonella on inoculated beef steaks. IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts 2009, Abstract no. 123-125,  p. 273, Anaheim, CA.
  • McKenzie, L.M., F. W. Pohlman, A.H. Brown, Jr., P.N. Dias-Morse, L.N. Mehall and Tim Rojas. 2009.   Instrumental color characteristics and summary of trained  sensory color panel evaluation for color effects on  strip loin beef steaks dipped into trisodium phosphate incorporated into gelatin coating systems.  Proceedings of  the 62nd Annual Reciprocal Meat Conference, June 2009. University of Arkansas, pg  68.
  • McKenzie, L.M., F.W. Pohlman, L.N. Mehall and P.N. Dias-Morse. 2009. Instrumental color characteristics and summary of trained sensory color panelist evaluation for color effects on beef steaks dipped into potassium lactate incorporated into gelatin coating systems.  Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Reciprocal Meat Conference, June 2009. University of Arkansas, pg 69.
  • McKenzie, L.M., F.W. Pohlman, A.H. Brown, Jr., P.N. Dias-Morse, L.N. Mehall and Tim Rojas. 2009.  Effects of strip loin beef steaks dipped into trisodium phosphate incorporated into gelatin coating systems for cook loss, sheer force and lipid characteristics. Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Reciprocal Meat Conference, June 2009. University of Arkansas, pg 68.
  • McKenzie, L. M., F. W. Pohlman, L. N. Mehall, and P. N. Dias-Morse. 2009. Effects of    bottom round beef steaks dipped into potassium lactate incorporated into gelatin coating system for cook loss, sheer force and lipid characteristics. Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Reciprocal Meat Conference, June 2009. University of Arkansas, pg 68.    

Publications

Refereed Professional Journal Articles 

  • Dias-Morse, P. N., F. W. Pohlman, J. A. McDaniel, R. D. Guidry, C. L. Coffman, and T. L. Devine. 2012. Evaluation of instrumental color characteristics of ground beef processed from beef trimmings decontaminated using lauric arginate accompanied by other antimicrobials. Proceedings of the 65th Annual Reciprocal Meat Conference, Fargo, ND. June 2012.

  • Dias-Morse, P. N., F. W. Pohlman, J. A. McDaniel, R. D. Guidry, C. L. Coffman, T. L. Devine and K. L. Beers. 2012. Multi-hurdle chemical decontamination approach using lauric arginate to enhance ground beef microbial properties. IFT Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, June 2012. June 2012.

  • Kushwaha, K., F. W. Pohlman, S. Ricke, P. N. Dias-Morse, D. Babu.  2012. Effect of octanoic acid treatments applied using conventional and electrostatic spray methods on microbial and color characteristics of ground beef.  IFT Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, June 2012.

  • Mohan, Anand, F. W. Pohlman, J. A. McDaniel, and M. C. Hunt.  2012. Role of Peroxyacetic Acid, Octanoic Acid, Malic Acid, and Potassium Lactate on the Microbiological and Instrumental Color Characteristics of Ground Beef. J. of Food Science, 77:M188-M193.

  • Pohlman, F. W2012. Ozone in Meat Processing. In “Ozone in Food Processing”.  Ed. C. O’Connell, B. K. Tiwari, P. J. Cullen and R. G. Rice. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, pp. 123-136.

  • McDaniel1, J. A., F. W. Pohlman, A. H. Brown, Steven C. Ricke, S. R. Milillo, P. N. Dias-Morse, L. N. Mehall, A. Mohan, T. Rojas, K. L. Beers. 2011. The enhancement of beef product safety through electrostatic spray application of cetylpridinium chloride, hydrochloric/citric acid mixture, potassium lactate, trisodium phosphate, or water as antimicrobial interventions on Longissimus lumborum at the sub-primal level. 2011. IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts, New Orleans, LA., June 2011.

  • McDaniel1, J. A., F. W. Pohlman, A. H. Brown, Steven C. Ricke, S. R. Milillo, P. N. Dias-Morse, L. N. Mehall, A. Mohan, T. Rojas, K. L. Beers. 2011. The enhancement of beef product safety through electrostatic spray application of cetylpyridinium chloride, hydrochloric/citric acid mixture, potassium lactate, trisodium phosphate, or water as multiple application antimicrobial interventions on Longissimus lumborum at the sub-primal and steak levels. 2011. IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts, New Orleans, LA., June 2011.

  • Mehall1, L. M., F. W. Pohlman, A. H. Brown, Jr., P. N. Dias-Morse, J. A. McDaniel, A. Mohan. 2011. The effects of hydrochloric/citric acid mixture, cetylpyridinium chloride, trisodium phophate, or sodium metasilicate as antimicrobial sequential treatment combinations on instrumental color, sensory color, and quality characteristics of beef Longissimus lumborum muscle. IFT Annual Meeting, Book of Abstracts, New Orleans, LA., June 2011.

  • Mehall1, L. M., F. W. Pohlman, A. H. Brown, Jr., P. N. Dias-Morse, J. A. McDaniel, A. Mohan. 2011. The effects of hydrochloric/citric acid mixture, cetylpyridinium chloride, trisodium phosphate, or sodium metasilicate as antimicrobial sequential treatment comginations on microbiological and instrumental color characteristics of beef Longissimus lumborum muscle. IFT Annual Meeting, Book of Abstracts, New Orleans, LA., June 2011.

  • Mohan1, A., F. W. Pohlman, P. N. Dias-Morse, L. N. Mehall*, J. A. McDaniel, R. D. Guidry, T. L. Devine, Z. B. Johnson, and V. Wijeratne. 2011. Ground beef microbial quality enhancement using a hydrochloric/citric acid based pre-grinding intervention. IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts, New Orleans, LA., June 2011.

  • Quilo, S.A., F.W. Pohlman, P.N. Dias-Morse, A.H. Brown, Jr., P.G. Crandall, R.P. Story. 2010. Microbial, instrumental color and sensory characteristics of inoculated ground beef produced using potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate or peroxyacetic acid as multiple antimicrobial interventions. Meat Sci. 84:470-476.
  • Baublits, R.T., F.W. Pohlman, A.H. Brown, Jr., Z.B. Johnson, D.C. Rule, D.O. Onks, C.M. Murrieta, C.J. Richards., B.A. Sandelin, H.D. Loveday, and R.B. Pugh. 2009. Correlations and prediction equations for fatty acids and sensory characteristics of beef longissimus rib steaks from forage-fed cattle and retail USDA Choice and Select rib steaks. J. Muscle Foods, 20:1-17.
  • Doung, D.Q., P.G. Crandall, F.W. Pohlman, C.A. O'Bryan, C.W. Balentine, and A. Castillo. 2009. Improving ground beeef safety and stabilizing color during irradiation using antioxidants, reductants or TSP. Meat Sci. 78:359-368.
  • Pohlman, F.W., P.N. Dias-Morse, S.A. Quilo, A.H. Brown, Jr., P.G. Crandall, R.T. Baublits, R.P. Story, and G. Rajaratnam. 2009. Microbial, instrumental color and sensory characteristics of ground beef processed from beef trimmings treated with potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, peroxyacetic acid or acidified sodium chlorite as single antimicrobial interventions. J. Muscle Foods, 20:54-69.
  • Quilo, S.A.Q., F.W. Pohlman, A.H. Brown, Jr., P.G. Crandall, P.N. Dias-Morse, R. T. Baublits, and J.L. Aparicio. 2009. Effects ofpotassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, peroxyacetic acid and acidified sodium shlorite on physical, chemical and sensory properties of ground beef patties. Meat Sci. 82:44-52.
  • Quilo, S.A., F.W. Pohlman, P.N. dias-Morse, A.H. Brown, Jr., P.G. Crnadall, R.T. Baublits, J.L. Aparicio. 2009. The impact of single antimicrobial intervention treatment with potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, peroxyacetic acid and acidified sodium chlorite on non-inoculated ground beef lipid, instrumental color and sensory characteristics. Meat Sci. 83:345-350.
  • Rowe, C.W., F.W. Pohlman, A.H. Brown, Jr., R.T. Baublits and Z.B. Johnson. 2009. Effects of Salt, BHA/BHT and Differing Phosphate Types On Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Beef Longissimus Muscles. J. Food Sci. 74:160-164.
  • Rowe, C.W., F.W. Pohlman, A.H. Brown, Jr., Z.B. Johnson, S.H. Whiting, and D.L. Galloway. 2009. Effects of conjugated Linoleic Acid, Salt and Sodium Tripolyphosphate on Physical, Sensory and instrumental Color Characteristics of Beef Striploins. J. Food Sci. 74:36-43.         
  • Baublits, R.T., F.W. Pohlman, A.H. Brown, Jr., Z.B. Johnson, A. Proctor, J. Sawyer, P. Dias-Morse, and D. Galloway. 2007.  Injection of conjugated linoleic acid into beef strip loins.  Meat Sci. 75:84-93.
  • Baublits, R.T., F.W. Pohlman, A.H. Brown, Jr., Z.B. Johnson, D.C. Rule, D.O. Onks, C.M. Murrieta, C.J. Richards, B.A. Sandelin, H.D. Loveday, and R.B. Pugh. 2007.  Correlations and prediction equations for fatty acids and sensory characteristics of beef longissimus rib streaks from forage-fed cattle and retail USDA Choice and Select rib steaks. J. Muscle Foods (Submitted).
  • Brown, A.H., Jr., P.K. Camfield, C.W. Rowe, L.Y. Rakes, F.W. Pohlman, Z.B. Johnson, C.J. Brown, and G.T. Tabler, Jr.  2007.  Effect of beef growth type on cooking loss, tenderness, and chemical composition of pasture- or-feedlot-developed steers. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:1746-1753.
  • Balentine, C.W., P.G. Crandall, C.A. O'Bryan, D.Q. Duong, and F.W. Pohlman. 2006.  The pre- and post-grinding application effects on the antioxidant and bacteriostatic properties of rosemary extract in ground beef. Meat Sci. 73:413-421.
  • Baublits, R.T., A.H. Brown, Jr., F.W. Pohlman, D.C. Rule, Z.B. Johnson, D.O. Onks, C.M. Murrieta, C.J. Richards, H.D. Loveday, B.A. Sandelin, and R.B. Pugh. 2006.  Fatty acid and sensory characteristics of beef from three biological types of cattle grazing cool-season forages supplemented with souhulls. Meat Sc. 72:100-107.
  • Baublits1 , R.T., F.W. Pohlman, A.H. Brown, Jr., D.C.Rule, Z.B. Johnson, D.O. Onks, C.M. Murrieta, B.A. Sandelin, C.J. Richards, H.D. Loveday, and R.B. Pugh. 2006.  Comparison of fatty acid and sensory profiles of beef from forage-fed cattle compared with retail United States Department of Agriculture Choice and Select beef. J. Muscle Foods 17(3):311-329.
  • Baublits, R.T., F.W. Pohlman, A.H. Brown, Jr., and Z.B. Johnson. 2006.  Effects of enhancement with differing phosphate types, concentrations, and pump rates, without sodium chloride on beef biceps femoris instrumental color characteristics. Meat Sci. 72:503-512.
  • Baublits, R.T., F.W. Pohlman, A.H. Brown, Jr., and Z.B. Johnson. 2006.  Enhancement with varying phosphate types, concentrations, and pump rates, without sodium chloride on beef biceps femoris quality and sensory characteristics. Meat Sci. 72:404-414.
  • Baublits, R.T., F.W. Pohlman, A.H. Brown, Jr., E.J. Yancey, and Z. B. Johnson. 2006.  Impact of muscle type and sodium chloride concentration on the quality, sensory, and instrumental color characteristics of solution enhanced whole-muscle beef. Meat Sci. 72:704-712.

Other Papers and Reports:

  • Pohlman, F. W.  2012. Ozone in Meat Processing. In “Ozone in Food Processing”.  Ed. C. O’Connell, B. K. Tiwari, P. J. Cullen and R. G. Rice. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, pp. 123-136.
  • Mohan, Anand, F. W. Pohlman, S. C. Ricke, S. R. Milillo, J. A. McDaniel, Ca. A. O’Bryan, P. G. Crandall. 2012. The antimicrobial efficacies of novel organic acids as single antimicrobial intervention for the control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated beef trimmings. The Arkansas Animal Science Report. Arknasas Agri. Exper. Sta. Research Series 597:108-111.
  • Mohan, Anand, F. W. Pohlman, J. A. McDaniel. 2012. The impact of peroxyacetic acid, octanoic acid, malic acid, and potassium lactate as antimicrobial interventions on instrumental color characteristics of beef trimmings. The Arkansas Animal Science Report. Arkansas Agri. Exp. Sta. Research Series 597:116-119.
  • Mohan, Anand, F. W. Pohlman, J. A. McDaniel. 2012. The effeccts of peroxyacetic acid, octanoic acid, malic acid, and potassium lactate in reducing Eshcerichia coli, Salmonella, Coliform, and Aerobic Plate counts in inoculated beef trimmings. The Arkansas Animal Science Report. Arkansas Agri. Exp. Sta. Research serties 597:112-115.
  • Mohan, Anand, F. W. Pohlman, M. C. Hunt. 2012. Inactivation of Escherichia coli cells at low dose rates of gamma readiaiton. The Arkansas Animal Science Report. Arkansas Agri. Exp. Research Series 597:120-123.
  • Mehall1, L. N., F. W. Pohlman, A. H. Brown, Jr., P. N. Dias-Morse, J. A. McDaniel. 2010. The effects of cetylpyridinium chloride, trisodium phosphate, potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, or water as multiple application antimicrobial interventions on microbiological characteristics of beef bicepts femoris muscles. Arkansas Animal Science Report. Arkansas Agri. Exper. Sta. Research Series 584:60-62.
  • Pohlman, F. W., P. N. Dias-Morse, A. Mohan, L. N. Mehall, T. N. Rojas, and J. A. McDaniel. 2010. Influence of hydrochloric/citric acid mixture alone or in combination with cetylpyrinidium chloride and TSP in

    reducing E. Coli, coliform and aerobic plate counts in inoculated beef. Arkansas Animal Science Report. Arkansas Agri. Exper. Sta. Research Series 584:63-64.

  • Pohlman, F. W., P. N. Dias-Morse, B. L. gupton, C. W. Rowe and L. M. McKenzie. 2008. Physical, chemical and sensory properties of surface decontaminated beef steaks using potassium lactate, sodium

    metasilicate, cetylpyridinium chloride or trisodium phosphate as single antimicrobial interventions prior to packaging. Ark. Anim. Sci. Agric. Exp. Res. Series. 563:109-114.

  • Pohlman, F. W., P.N. Dias-Morse and S.R. De Silva. 2007. Effect of surface decontamination using  antimicrobial agents on microbiological quality of beef steaks. Ark. Anim. Sci. Ark Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Series 553:78-80.

  • Rowe, C. W., F. W. Pohlman, A.H. Brown, Jr. and Z.B. Johnson. 2007. Effect of salt, trisodium phosphate, synthetic antioxidants, and conjugated linoleic acid on sensory quality characteristics of beef strip loins. Ark. Anim. Sci. Ark Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Series 553:81-83.

  • Rowe, C. W., Pohlman, F. W., Brown, A. H. Jr., & Johnson. 2007. Effect of salt, trisodium phosphate, synthetic antioxidants, and conjugated linoleic acid on instrumental color characteristics and physical characteristics of beef strip loins of different quality grade. Ark. Anim. Sci. Ark Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Series 553:84-86.

  • Baublits1, R.T., F.W. Pohlman, A.H. Brown, Jr., Z.B. Johnson, A. Proctor, J. Sawyer, P. Dias-Morse and D.L.  Galloway.  2006.  Injection of conjugated linoleic acid into beef strip loins.  Ark. Anim. Sci. Ark Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Series 545:12-18.

  • Pohlman, F.W., P.N. Dias-Morse and S.A. Quilo.  2006.  Effect of potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, peroxyacetic acid or acidified sodium chlorite as single antimicrobial interventions on un-inoculated beef trimmings prior to grinding on ground beef sensory characteristics.  Ark. Anim. Sci. Ark Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Series 545:23-25.

  • Pohlman, F.W., P.N. Dias-Morse and S.A. Quilo. 2006.  Effect of potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, peroxyacetic acid or acidified sodium chlorite as single antimicrobial interventions on un-inoculated beef trimmings prior to grinding on ground beef instrumental color and lipid characteristics.  Ark. Anim. Sci. Ark. Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Series 545:19-22.

 

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